Analysis of mathematical tasks provided by storytelling mathematics textbooks
김동중 Dong Joong Kim , 배성철 Sung Chul Bae , 김원 Won Kim , 이다희 Da Hee Lee , 최상호 Sang Ho Choi
29(3) 281300, 2015
김동중 Dong Joong Kim , 배성철 Sung Chul Bae , 김원 Won Kim , 이다희 Da Hee Lee , 최상호 Sang Ho Choi
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 281300, 2015
The purpose of this research is to analyze cognitive demands, answer types, and storytelling types on the basis of mathematical tasks in five different mathematics textbooks based on 2009 revised curriculum in order to suggest directions for the development and use of storytelling mathematics textbooks in school. Results show that first, PNC (Procedures without Connections) task was the largest category in cognitive demands of all mathematical tasks, LowLevel task was larger than others in cognitive demands of mathematical content tasks, and HighLevel task was larger than others in cognitive demands of mathematical activity tasks. Second, a shortanswer type was the largest category in answer types of all mathematical tasks, the majority of mathematical content tasks were a shortanswer type, and the majority of mathematical activity tasks were both shortanswer and explanationanswer types. Finally, storytelling connected to reallife was the largest category in storytelling types, and the number of mathematical activity tasks was less than that of mathematical content tasks. However, in the tasks reflected on storytelling, the percentage of mathematical activity tasks was higher than that of mathematical content tasks. Based on the results, while developing storytelling mathematics textbooks and using storytelling textbooks in school, it suggests to consider the need for balance and diversity in cognitive demands, answer types, and storytelling types according to mathematical tasks.

Storymaking with Mathematics and its examples
이규봉 Gyou Bong Lee
29(3) 301311, 2015
이규봉 Gyou Bong Lee
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 301311, 2015
If the storytelling Mathematics is teaching Mathematics by making and telling stories on Mathematics, the storymaking with Mathematics is that teachers(or mathematicians) who wish to develop their opinions concerning about their interesting fields apply them into a real life. They can use mathematical consequences for their arguments. I’ll call it ‘storymaking’. It could let the general public know that studying Mathematics is useful. So this application is helpful to the popularization of Mathematics.

Analysis of Elementary Textbooks and Guidebook for Teacher regarding the Classification of Angles and Triangles in the Constructivist Perspective
노은환 Eun Hwan Roh , 강정기 Jeong Gi Kang
29(3) 313330, 2015
노은환 Eun Hwan Roh , 강정기 Jeong Gi Kang
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 313330, 2015
The classification is an important activity that is directly related to concept formation. Thus it will need to be made meaningful learning to classification through learnercentered teaching. But we doubts weather teaching and learning to the classification are reflected in the constructivist philosophy of ``learnercentered`` well or not. The purpose of this study was to analyze critically the content of elementary textbooks and guidebook for teachers relating to the classification of angles and triangles in terms of constructivism. As a result, there is a problem in the classification of angles that are not provided a reasonable chance to set criteria by agreement of the communities. There is a problem in the classification of triangles that has the characteristics of radical development in terms of diversity. In addition, response of students was predicted like anyone who already acquired knowledge. And it has the shortcomings that the opportunity to have a choice and a discussion to hierarchical and partition classification are not provided. The followings are proposed based on such features; faithful reflection of ``Learnercentered`` principle, careful prediction of student response, teaching that focus on process than results.

Mathematicians who overcomes their disabilities
박경은 Kyung Eun Park , 이상구 Sang Gu Lee
29(3) 331352, 2015
박경은 Kyung Eun Park , 이상구 Sang Gu Lee
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 331352, 2015
There are lots of disabled mathematicians who overcame their disabilities and made great achievement to the world of mathematics. In this article, we introduce disabled mathematicians who overcome their disabilities and contributes to the development of mathematics: Nicholas Saunderson, Leonhard Euler, Lewis Carroll, Solomon Lefschetz, Louis Antoine, Gaston Maurice Julia, Lev Semenovich Pontryagin, Abraham Nemeth, John Nash, Bernard Morin, Anatoli G. Vitushkin, Lawrence W. Baggett, Norberto Salinas, Theodore John Kaczynski, Richard E. Borcherds, Dimitri Kanevsky, Hwang Yunseong, Emmanuel Giroux, Kim Inkang, Zachary J. Battles, and Pratish Datta. As well, we classify mathematics education environments and the role education played in helping these mathematicians overcome their disabilities and other obstacles. Then, we discuss educational environmental changes in the 21st century for special mathematics education.

The utilization and problems of number line in elementary school mathematics textbook
홍진곤 Jin Kon Hong , 김양권 Yang Gwon Kim
29(3) 353372, 2015
홍진곤 Jin Kon Hong , 김양권 Yang Gwon Kim
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 353372, 2015
This study investigated how to utilize number line related number concept learning and analyzed problems related utilization of number line focused on natural number and rational number(fraction, decimal), in elementary school mathematics textbook. The purpose of this study is to identify desirable direction about the utilization of number line, based on analysis of the introduction of time, introduction contents and utilization method in elementary school mathematics textbook.

A Study about the Practices of Teachers Who Changed the Subject to Mathematics Based on Their Belief
김수선 Soo Sun Kim , 고상숙 Sang Sook Koh
29(3) 373389, 2015
김수선 Soo Sun Kim , 고상숙 Sang Sook Koh
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 373389, 2015
This study was to investigate the practice of the teachers who changed their teaching subject to Mathematics from other subjects. Teacher, A who had traditional belief and Teacher, B, nontraditional belief were chosen for the study through the questionnaire in Sep. 2014. The result indicated that Teacher, A in traditional belief showed teachercentered teaching but Teacher, B in nontraditional belief showed inconsistent way of teaching in comparison to the original perspective. The later said she could not teach students as she wanted to teach because of the lack of knowledge of teaching as a math teacher. The difficulties Teacher, A encountered were: to handle too many works beyond teaching and to teach too many contents to cover without having enough time to prepare. Teacher, B didn’t know how to teach students math in a constructivism way. They asked to offer them more inservice training program to develop their expertise for teaching mathematics.

A Comparative Study of Mathematics Textbook Between 2009 Revised Curriculum and IB Diploma Program  The case of high school Algebra 
양현주 Hyun Ju Yang , 좌준수 Jun Soo Choa , 최승현 Seung Hyun Choe
29(3) 391421, 2015
양현주 Hyun Ju Yang , 좌준수 Jun Soo Choa , 최승현 Seung Hyun Choe
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 391421, 2015
The scientific technology developed rapidly and the internet became more popular, also, the world became interactive with one another and the word ‘Global’ became popular and built a new paradigm. As the development of the society, the ideal criteria for the competent student changed. Consequently, the attention for the globalized education increased. From the points of view of mathematical education, it became a important task to be prepared for international competitiveness for korean talented students. For theses reasons, this article analyzes the characteristics of IBDP and its textbook, which is an international official curriculum and one of the actualizing method for internalization Korean high school curriculum and text book, specifically, focusing on algebra part. Especially, Korean curriculum textbooks and the Mathematical Higher Level textbooks of IBDP was compared and analyzed. As a result, the depth and range of the content, standard level of the question, methods being used to explain the concept, type of questions as well as teaching  learning method were analyzed and in each chapter of the algebra we give meaningful result and proposed discussion.

A study on the relationship between prior learning experience and mathematics achievement, GPA of college
이경희 Gyeoung Hee Lee , 이정례 Jung Rye Lee
29(3) 423439, 2015
이경희 Gyeoung Hee Lee , 이정례 Jung Rye Lee
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 423439, 2015
This study examines the relationship between prior learning experience, the high school records, mathematics grade in the KSAT(Korean Scholastic Aptitude Test) and mathematics achievement, GPA(grade point average) of college freshmen. It analyses how much mathematics capacities in the time of high school affect mathematics achievement of college freshmen. This study surveyed 193 freshmen, attending in a college of science and engineering, taking the ‘basic differential and integral calculus’ lecture, which was opened for the first semester of 2014 in the A university. The data processing was fulfilled by means of technical statistics, correlation analysis, difference test, ANOVA, ex post facto test, and regression analysis. The outcomes of this survey are followings: Firstly, over 90 percent of college freshmen underwent prior learning of mathematics when they attended high school. Secondly, their perception of effectiveness for prior learning is founded to be meaningfully lower than their perception of its needfulness. Thirdly, while there is higher positive correlation between mathematics achievement and GPA in the college, there is little correlation between high school records and GPA in the college. Also, there is little correlation between mathematics grade in the KSAT and mathematics achievement in the college. Fourthly, the accomplishments in the high school(The high school records, mathematics grade in the KSAT) and the efforts, satisfaction, necessity, etc. for prior learning had little effect on academic achievement in college mathematics. Based on these results, this study makes some suggestions for developing academical achievement in college mathematics.

A Research on the Real State of Storytelling Mathematics Class of Middle School
유은화 Eunhwa Yu , 윤종국 Jong Gug Yun
29(3) 441463, 2015
유은화 Eunhwa Yu , 윤종국 Jong Gug Yun
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 441463, 2015
The big issue of mathematics education in 2009 revised curriculum is to introduce storytelling in math textbook and to aim toward the math that students can learn easily and interestingly. Therefore, this study examine the perception of middle school teachers in working with storytelling, analyze actual utilization of storytelling in class and provide the basic materials for effective practical application. After making questionnaires to check the real conditions of the storytelling and asking math teachers in charge of the first and second graders, this research came to the conclusion as follows. First, the teachers who took part in this research showed positive perception in storytelling textbook the practical use of a variety of materials and the improvement of thinking faculty and creativity. Second, math teachers made use of a variety of storytelling data and especially reflection media in class, but this was limited in introductory part. Mathematic concept was delivered mainly through the activities of exchanging questions and answers between the teachers and students. Third, students showed positive reaction about storytelling class on the whole. For example, they understood the concept easily and they could apply it in real life. However, storytelling failed to bring the attention and interest of math itself. Therefore, teachers’ ability is needed in the way that math knowledge and concept should be formed and expressed interestingly.

A Study of Secondary Mathematics Materials at a Gifted Education Center in Science Attached to a University Using Network Text Analysis
김성연 Sungyeun Kim , 이선영 Seonyoung Lee , 신종호 Jongho Shin , 최원 Won Choi
29(3) 465489, 2015
김성연 Sungyeun Kim , 이선영 Seonyoung Lee , 신종호 Jongho Shin , 최원 Won Choi
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 465489, 2015
The purpose of this study is to suggest implications for the development and revision of future teaching materials for mathematically gifted students by using network text analysis of secondary mathematics materials. Subjects of the analysis were learning goals of 110 teaching materials in a gifted education center in science attached to a university from 2002 to 2014. In analysing the frequency of the texts that appeared in the learning goals, key words were selected. A cooccurrence matrix of the key words was established, and a basic information of network, centrality, centralization, component, and kcore were deducted. For the analysis, KrKwic, KrTitle, and NetMiner4.0 programs were used, respectively. The results of this study were as follows. First, there was a pivot of the network formed with core hubs including ‘diversity’, ‘understanding’ ‘concept’ ‘method’, ‘application’, ‘connection’ ‘problem solving’, ‘basic’, ‘real life’, and ‘thinking ability’ in the whole network from 2002 to 2014. In addition, knowledge aspects were well reflected in teaching materials based on the centralization analysis. Second, network text analysis based on the three periods of the Mater Plan for the promotion of gifted education was conducted. As a result, a network was built up with ‘understanding’, and there were strong ties among ‘question’, ‘answer’, and ‘problem solving’ regardless of the periods. On the contrary, the centrality analysis showed that ‘communication’, ‘discovery’, and ‘proof’ only appeared in the first, second, and third period of Master Plan, respectively. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that affective aspects and activities with high cognitive process should be accompanied, and learning goals’ mannerism and ahistoricism be prevented in developing and revising teaching materials.

Prospective Elementary School Teachers` Perception on Using the History of Korean Mathematics
최은아 Eunah Choi
29(3) 491511, 2015
최은아 Eunah Choi
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 491511, 2015
This study analyzed the perception of prospective elementary school teachers in relation to using the history of Korean mathematics. The results of this study showed that the preservice teachers realized using the history of Korean mathematics more importantly than the history of mathematics. They thought that the contents of the history of Korean mathematics should be increased in mathematics education and preservice teacher education. The participation experience in teacher education about the history of Korean mathematics had a positive effect on the perception of preservice teachers. Finally, this paper asserted that teacher education is the key to the teacher perception on and using of the history of Korean mathematics.

A Study on Desirable Management of College Mathematics through the Change of Mathematics Recognition in Engineering Freshmen
이정례 Jung Rye Lee
29(3) 513532, 2015
이정례 Jung Rye Lee
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 513532, 2015
In order to suggest desirable management of college mathematics for freshmen in middle level engineering college, we analyse the change of mathematics recognition between 2011 year and 2015 year freshmen who took college scholastic ability test which are based on the national mathematics curriculum 7th and 7th revision, respectively. In A university, 2011 year and 2015 year engineering freshmen were taken basic mathematical ability test and given the survey for the recognition of mathematics and college mathematics. Research results are as follows: First of all, middle level engineering freshmen were poor at basic mathematical ability. The change of mathematics recognition appeared in the level of mathematics ability and the effort for college mathematics class. Moreover middle level engineering freshmen recognize college mathematics as a basic subject for engineering and hope teacherdirected learning in college mathematics class. For the success of college mathematics in engineering college, this study suggests basic mathematical ability test and the survey for the recognition of mathematics and college mathematics. We also suggest that college mathematics class must be focused on basic mathematical ability improvement and selfdirected learning. * ZDM Classification : D35, D34 *

An Investigation on the Application for Problem Generation and Problem Reformulation by Preservice Teachers
김슬비 Seul Bi Kim , 황혜정 Hye Jeang Hwang
29(3) 533551, 2015
김슬비 Seul Bi Kim , 황혜정 Hye Jeang Hwang
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 533551, 2015
Problem posing in school mathematics is generally regarded to make a new problem from contexts, information, and experiences relevant to realistic or mathematical situations. Also, it is to reconstruct a similar or more complicated new problem based on an original problem. The former is called as problem generation and the latter is as problem reformulation. The purpose of this study was to explore the corelation between problem generation and problem reformulation, and the educational effectiveness of each problem posing. For this purpose, on the subject of 33 preservice secondary school teachers, this study developed two types of problem posing activities. The one was executed as the procedures of [problem generation→solving a selfgenerated problem→reformulation of the problem], and the other was done as the procedures of [problem generation→solving the most often generated problem→reformulation of the problem]. The intent of the former activity was to lead students’ maintaining the ability to deal with the problem generation and reformulation for themselves. Furthermore, through the latter one, they were led to have peers’ thinking patterns and typical tendency on problem generation and reformulation according to the instructor(the researcher)``s guidance. After these activities, the subject(33 preservice teachers) was responded in the survey. The information on the survey is consisted of mathematical difficulties and interests, cognitive and affective domains, merits and demerits, and application to the instruction and assessment situations in math class. According to the results of this study, problem generation would be geared to understand mathematical concepts and also problem reformulation would enhance problem solving ability. And it is shown that accomplishing the second activity of problem posing be more efficient than doing the first activity in math class.

The Relationships among Mathematics Achievement, Spatial Ability, and Verbal Achievement for Engineering Freshmen and Gender Differences
김연미 Yon Mi Kim
29(3) 553571, 2015
김연미 Yon Mi Kim
DOI: JANT Vol.29(No.3) 553571, 2015
Mathematical, verbal, and spatial abilities are known as three important indicators for the success in the STEM disciplines. In this study, Purdue Spatial Visualization TestRotation, College Entrance Scholastic Aptitude Test Math and Verbal score of engineering freshmen students have been used to find the relationships among these areas. In addition, gender differences in spatial visualization, verbal achievement and mathematical achievement have been investigated, too. In this research, I found that gender difference was highest in spatial visualization ability, followed by verbal achievement and smallest in mathematical achievement. Substantial number of male students possess high level of spatial abilities, but only half of female students were at the same level where their male colleagues were. The correlation between spatial ability and mathematical ability was negligible, contrary to former researches on elementary and middle school students. But the correlation was stronger for female students than male students. The correlation between mathematical achievement and verbal achievement was negative. It reflects the fact that when one section of SAT score is low, score of other sections should be higher to get admitted to college. Gender difference in mathematics was smallest for high achieving spatial ability group. For low spatial ability group gender difference in mathematics achievement has been observed, too. To find the combined contribution of spatial and verbal abilities to mathematics achievement, students were divided into 4 ability groups. Mathematics achievement decreased in the order of ① high spatial low verbal group, ② low spatial  low verbal group, ③ high spatial  high verbal group, ④ low spatial  high verbal group. * ZDM classification: C15 *
